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Excess Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Negative Cardiovascular, Intestinal and Metabolic Outcomes in Mice

  • Claire Sears
    Correspondence
    Address for correspondence: Claire Sears, MEd, Canadian Diabetes Association, Research & Education Department, 1400-522 University, Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2R5, Canada.
    Affiliations
    Communications Manager, Research Knowledge Translation, Canadian Diabetes Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Sanjoy Ghosh
    Affiliations
    Michael Smith Health Research Foundation Scholar, University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada
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      Nutrition therapy is a central aspect of living well with diabetes (
      • Dworatzek P.D.
      • Arcudi K.
      • Gougeon R.
      • et al.
      Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada: Nutrition therapy.
      ). There is general alignment in the research literature that nutrition therapy has a positive impact on glycemic control (
      • Pastors J.G.
      • Warshaw H.
      • Daly A.
      • et al.
      The evidence for the effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy in diabetes management.
      ), can reduce glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels by 1.0% to 2.0% (
      • Pi-Sunyer F.X.
      • Maggio C.A.
      • McCarron D.A.
      • et al.
      Multicenter randomized trial of a comprehensive prepared meal program in type 2 diabetes.
      ,
      • Franz M.J.
      • Monk A.
      • Barry B.
      • et al.
      Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.
      ,
      • Kulkarni K.
      • Castle G.
      • Gregory R.
      • et al.
      The Diabetes Care and Education Dietetic Practice Group. Nutrition practice guidelines for type 1 diabetes mellitus positively affect dietitian practices and patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Gaetke L.
      • Stuart M.
      • Truszczynska H.
      A single nutrition counseling session with a registered dietitian improves short-term clinical outcomes for rural Kentucky patients with chronic diseases.
      ) and, when applied in combination with other standard components of diabetes care, can improve clinical and metabolic outcomes, such as weight loss, body mass index and cholesterol levels (
      • Franz M.J.
      • Monk A.
      • Barry B.
      • et al.
      Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.
      ,
      • Kulkarni K.
      • Castle G.
      • Gregory R.
      • et al.
      The Diabetes Care and Education Dietetic Practice Group. Nutrition practice guidelines for type 1 diabetes mellitus positively affect dietitian practices and patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Imai S.
      • Kozai H.
      • Matsuda M.
      • et al.
      Intervention with delivery of diabetic meals improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
      ,
      • Huang M.-C.
      • Hsu C.-C.
      • Wang H.-S.
      • et al.
      Prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness of registered dietitian-led diabetes management on glycemic and diet control in a primary care setting in Taiwan.
      ). Typically, people affected by diabetes are prescribed diets that follow Health Canada's recommendations within the Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (
      • Health Canada
      Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide.
      ). However, a variety of dietary patterns that work within these guidelines have shown positive results for people with diabetes (
      • Dworatzek P.D.
      • Arcudi K.
      • Gougeon R.
      • et al.
      Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada: Nutrition therapy.
      ). For example, the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada describe the benefit of diets, including the vegetarian, the Mediterranean and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, and the individuals' values, preferences and abilities should be taken into consideration when determining the best courses of action (
      • Dworatzek P.D.
      • Arcudi K.
      • Gougeon R.
      • et al.
      Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada: Nutrition therapy.
      ).
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        Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.
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