Impact of Egg Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes and at Risk for Developing Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Randomized Nutritional Intervention Studies

Published:March 27, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2016.12.002

      Abstract

      Observational studies have reported inconclusive results regarding the relationship between egg consumption (and dietary cholesterol) and the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in individuals with type 2 diabetes, which has led to inconsistent recommendations to patients. We reviewed the evidence of egg consumption on major CVD risk factors in individuals with or at risk for type 2 diabetes (prediabetes, insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome). We performed a systematic search in the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science in January 2016. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials in which the amount of egg consumed was manipulated and compared to a control group that received no-egg or low-egg diets (<2 eggs/week). We found 10 articles (6 original trials) that met our inclusion criteria. The majority of studies found that egg consumption did not affect major CVD risk factors. Consumption of 6 to 12 eggs per week had no impact on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin or C-reactive protein in all studies that reported these outcomes in comparison with control groups. An increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol with egg consumption was observed in 4 of 6 studies. Results from randomized controlled trials suggest that consumption of 6 to 12 eggs per week, in the context of a diet that is consistent with guidelines on cardiovascular health promotion, has no adverse effect on major CVD risk factors in individuals at risk for developing diabetes or with type 2 diabetes. However, heterogeneities in study design, population included and interventions prevent firm conclusions from being drawn.

      Résumé

      Les études d'observation ont rapporté des résultats non concluants concernant la relation entre la consommation d'œufs (et le cholestérol alimentaire) et le risque de maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) chez les individus atteints du diabète de type 2, qui ont débouché sur des recommandations contradictoires faites aux patients. Nous avons passé en revue les données scientifiques sur la consommation d'œufs et les facteurs de risque majeurs de MCV chez les individus atteints ou exposés au risque de diabète de type 2 (prédiabète, insulinorésistance ou syndrome métabolique). Nous avons réalisé une recherche systématique dans les banques de données PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE et Web of Science en janvier 2016. Les critères d'inclusion comprenaient les essais cliniques à répartition aléatoire dans lesquels la quantité d'œufs consommés était manipulée et comparée à un groupe témoin qui avait des régimes sans œufs ou à faible quantité d'œufs (<2 œufs/semaine). Nous avons trouvé 10 articles (6 essais originaux) qui répondaient aux critères d'inclusion. La majorité des études ont montré que la consommation d'œufs n'influençait pas les facteurs de risque majeurs de MCV. La consommation de 6 à 12 œufs par semaine n'avait pas de répercussions sur les concentrations plasmatiques du cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de faible densité, les triglycérides, la glycémie à jeun, l'insuline ou la protéine C réactive dans toutes les études qui rapportaient ces résultats cliniques par rapport aux groupes témoins. Une augmentation du cholestérolà lipoprotéines de haute densité à la suite de la consommation d'œufs a été observée dans 4 des 6 études. Les résultats des essais cliniques à répartition aléatoire suggèrent que la consommation de 6 à 12 œufs par semaine, dans le contexte d'un régime alimentaire qui est conforme aux lignes directrices sur la promotion de la santé cardiovasculaire, n'a pas d'effets indésirables sur les facteurs de risque majeurs de MCV chez les individus exposés au risque de développement du diabète ou atteints du diabète de type 2. Cependant, l'hétérogénéité de la conception des études, de la population incluse et des interventions empêche de tirer des conclusions définitives.

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      Linked Article

      • Egg Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk
        Canadian Journal of DiabetesVol. 42Issue 3
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          The recent paper by Richard et al (1) seems to continue the efforts of the egg industry to obfuscate the issues about the risks of egg consumption (note the funding by the egg industry in the Acknowledgments). What matters is not the level of risk factors, but the actual risk of events. As recently reviewed (2), the influence of the food industry on perception of risks is pernicious and pervasive.
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