Abbreviations:T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), GDF15 (growth differentiation factor-15), SD (standard deviation), OR (odds ratio), 95%CI (95% confidence interval), IDF (International Diabetes Federation), MIC-1 (macrophage inhibitory cytokine), TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β), BMI (body mass index), CVD (cardiovascular disease), DKD (diabetic kidney disease), SBP (systolic blood pressure), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), ALT (alanine transaminase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), TC (total cholesterol), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol)
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1. Higher GDF15 levels were associated with T2DM complications.
2. Patients with two or more types of complications had higher levels of GDF15 than those with fewer types of complications.
Author Disclosures: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
This work was supported by the Youth Program of Reinvigorating the Health through Science and Education in Suzhou, China (granted number KJXW2020054), Jiangsu Province Medical Innovation Team Program (K201105), the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China, and a Project Funded by Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).
Data availability statement
The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to privacy or ethical restrictions.