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Effect of Combined Exercise Training on Physical and Cognitive Function in Women With Type 2 Diabetes

Published:November 17, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2022.11.005

      Abstract

      Objectives

      One of the consequences of old age is cognitive and physical decline, which can cause a wide range of problems. These complications are more pronounced in those with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of combined exercise training on blood biomarkers, physical fitness and cognitive function in elderly women with T2D.

      Methods

      Twenty-one elderly women with T2D were randomly allocated to training (n=12) and control (n=9) groups. The exercise training program was a combination of aerobic, resistance and balance exercises performed 3 times per week over 12 weeks. In the same period, the control group received no training intervention. Blood markers, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), irisin, glycated hemoglobin (A1C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), lower and upper body strength and cognitive function, were measured in all participants at baseline and after 12 weeks.

      Results

      Serum BDNF levels were not significantly different between the exercise and control groups at 12 weeks (p>0.05). FBS and A1C levels in the exercise group decreased significantly compared with the control group (p<0.05). CRF, dynamic balance and both upper and lower body strength in the exercise group improved significantly compared with the control group (p<0.05). Irisin levels decreased significantly in the control group, but levels did not change significantly in the exercise group. Greater improvements from exercise were observed on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment index compared with the control group (p=0.05), but no other group differences in cognitive function were noted.

      Conclusions

      Combined exercise improved some physical fitness and diabetes-related surrogate factors as well as select cognitive functions, but had no significant effect on cognition-related biochemical factors (i.e. BDNF) in women with T2D.

      Résumé

      Objectifs

      Le déclin cognitif et physique, qui est l’une des conséquences de la vieillesse, entraîne un grand nombre de problèmes. Les personnes atteintes du diabète de type 2 (DT2) sont plus vulnérables à ces complications. L’objectif de la présente étude pilote était d’examiner les effets de l’entraînement physique combiné sur les biomarqueurs sanguins, la forme physique et la fonction cognitive des femmes âgées atteintes du DT2.

      Méthodes

      Nous avons réparti de façon aléatoire 21 femmes âgées atteintes du DT2 au groupe d’entraînement (n = 12) et au groupe témoin (n = 9). Le programme d’entraînement physique consistait en la combinaison d’exercices aérobiques, contre résistance et d’équilibre réalisés 3 fois par semaine durant 12 semaines. Pendant la même période, les femmes du groupe témoin ne recevaient aucune intervention en matière d’entraînement. Au début et après 12 semaines, nous avons mesuré les marqueurs sanguins de toutes les participantes, notamment le facteur neurotrophique dérivé du cerveau (BDNF, de l’anglais brain-derived neurotrophic factor), l’irisine, l’hémoglobine glyquée (A1c), la glycémie à jeun, la forme cardiorespiratoire (FCR), la force de la partie inférieure et de la partie supérieure du corps, et le fonctionnement cognitif.

      Résultats

      Les concentrations sériques du BDNF n’étaient pas significativement différentes entre les femmes du groupe d’entraînement et les femmes du groupe témoin après 12 semaines (p > 0,05). La glycémie à jeun et les concentrations de l’A1c des femmes du groupe d’entraînement diminuaient significativement (p < 0,05) par rapport aux femmes du groupe témoin. La FCR, l’équilibre dynamique et la force de la partie inférieure et de la partie supérieure du corps des femmes du groupe d’entraînement par rapport aux femmes du groupe témoin montraient des améliorations significatives (p < 0,05). Les concentrations d’irisine des femmes du groupe témoin montraient une diminution significative, mais les concentrations des femmes du groupe d’entraînement ne changeaient pas. Nous avons observé que les femmes du groupe d’entraînement avaient des améliorations plus importantes que les femmes du groupe témoin (p = 0,05) à l’indice de l’Évaluation cognitive de Montréal (MoCA, de l’anglais Montreal Cognitive Assessment), mais nous n’avons noté aucune autre différence dans les fonctions cognitives des femmes des deux groupes.

      Conclusions

      L’entraînement physique combiné a permis d’améliorer certains paramètres de la forme physique et facteurs de substitution liés au diabète ainsi que certaines fonctions cognitives, mais n’a eu aucun effet sur les facteurs biochimiques des fonctions cognitives (c.-à-d. le BDNF) des femmes atteintes du DT2.

      Keywords

      Mots clés

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