• Types of paper
• Human and animal rights
• Permissions
• Declaration of generative AI in scientific writing
• Use of inclusive language
• Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Potential Reviewers
• Patient Consent Form
• Article structure
• References
• Video
• Research data
• Offprints

About the Journal
The Canadian Journal of Diabetes is Canada's only diabetes-oriented, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal for diabetes health-care professionals. The Canadian Journal of Diabetes is the official publication of the Professional Section of Diabetes Canada. The journal invites novel clinical and translational science submissions relevant to diabetes care and education.

The mission of the Canadian Journal of Diabetes is to promote the sharing of interdisciplinary research and evidence-based knowledge, from clinical or translational science to public health and education, which leads to advances in the care of diabetes.

Types of paper

1. Original Research
2. Review
3. Case Reports
4. Practical Diabetes
5. Perspectives in Practice
6. Innovations in Diabetes Care
7. Diabetes Dilemma
8. Letters to the Editor

All article types (with exception of letters to the Editor) require 2 to 3 key messages (for details, please refer to the manuscript preparation section).

The title of all articles should clearly indicate the population and type of diabetes referred to in the article (for example: Eye Color in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes).

Please contact the editorial board prior to submission if you are unable to adhere to the word and reference limits detailed below.

Please note that all of the word counts exclude references, unless otherwise noted.

1. Original Research (≤4000 words): Original research articles report basic science and clinical investigation in areas relevant to diabetes. Authors should take care to clearly establish the link of the work to diabetes, keeping in mind the broad readership of the journal by healthcare providers. Original research articles should include the following subsections: introduction, methods, results, discussion and brief conclusion. Original research articles must include a structured abstract (250 words maximum). Original research articles may be up to 4000 words and contain up to 4 figures and/or tables. Reference list must not exceed 50 references.

2. Review (≤5000 words): Review articles report basic science and clinical investigation in areas relevant to diabetes. Review articles must also include an abstract, although it need not be structured (maximum 250 words). Review articles should provide answers to clinically relevant questions that have not been well-answered to date, or bring readers up to date on useful concepts in a rapidly changing field. Review articles should provide a balanced presentation of the issues and evidence on the topic. Review articles may be up to 5000 words and contain up to 4 figures and/or tables. The reference list should not exceed 75 references. (Please note: Literature reviews conducted using a scientific method, such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses, should be submitted as original research).

3. Case Reports (≤1000 words): Case reports should outline a clinical situation that illustrates unique or atypical features or provide a lesson to be learned that is relevant to diabetes care. Case reports should include a brief introduction, a description of the case and discussion, including relevance, implications and recommendations. Case reports do not require an abstract. Articles in this section should not exceed 1000 words in length and may contain up to 2 figures and/or tables. The reference list should not exceed 20 references. Written informed consent from the patient(s) or their guardians(s) should be obtained before submission.

4. Practical Diabetes(≤2000 words): Articles under this section should be structured like review articles, be well-referenced and focus on any aspect of the care of people with diabetes. Practical Diabetes articles must also include an abstract, although it need not be structured (maximum 250 words). Practical diabetes articles could include review of new resources relevant to the care and education of people with diabetes. Articles in this section should not exceed 2000 words in length and may contain up to 2 figures and/or tables. The reference list should not exceed 25.

5. Perspectives in Practice (≤2000 words): This section provides a format for authors to discuss new programs or services, ideas, insights or practical approaches to diabetes care and education or professional development. Papers in this section should be well-referenced. Articles in this section should not exceed 2000 words in length and may contain up to 2 figures and/or tables. The reference list should not exceed 25 references.

6. Innovations in Diabetes Care (≤700 words): Papers in this section review new resources relevant to the care and education of people with diabetes. They may comment on range and depth of contents, readability level, design, approach, price and graphic elements. Articles in this section should not exceed 700 words in length and may contain 1 figure or table. The reference list should not exceed 10 references.

7. Diabetes Dilemmas (≤850 words): This feature is intended to highlight interesting and challenging cases in diabetes. This may include: diagnostic considerations, a picture to illustrate a clinical feature, management challenges and complications. The case should illustrate an approach to the problem and provide a succinct summary of take-home points. The case presentation should be 250 words (maximum) and clearly demonstrate the clinical diabetes challenge. Alternatively, a picture or illustration can be submitted instead of the case presentation provided it demonstrates the challenge. The case presentation should be followed by a discussion that is 600 words (maximum) outlining the approach to the clinical diabetes challenge. One figure or table may be included. Reference list should not exceed 10 references. Written informed consent from the patient(s) or their guardians(s) should be obtained before submission.

8. Letter to the Editor (≤500 words): Letters to the editor comment on a recently published article (which must be cited in the reference list) and should be submitted within 2 months of printed publication of the article. Letters do not have abstracts and may have a maximum of 5 references. The author(s) of the article under discussion will be invited to respond to the comment letter using the same format guidelines.

Table 1. Summary of Submission Requirements
Abstract (word count) Word Count* References (maximum) Tables/Figures
Original Research Required (250) ≤ 4000 50 4 tables or figures
Review Required (250) ≤ 5000 75 4 tables or figures
Case Reports No ≤ 1000 20 2 tables or figures
Practical Diabetes Required (250) ≤ 2000 25 2 tables or figures
Perspectives in Practice No ≤ 2000 25 2 tables or figures
Innovations in Diabetes Care No ≤ 750 10 1 table or figure
Diabetes Dilemmas No ≤ 850 10 1 table or figure
Letter to the Editor No ≤ 500 5 N/A

* excludes abstract and references

Ethics in Publishing

For information on ethics in publishing and ethical guidelines for journal publication, refer to: and

Human and animal rights

Work on human beings that is submitted to the Canadian Journal of Diabetes should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects, adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964 (and successive amendments). The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines.

Patients and Study Participants
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, and should be documented in the manuscript.

Patients have a right to privacy. Therefore identifying information, including patient's photographs, pedigree, images, names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in the submissions unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and written informed consent has been obtained for publication in print and electronic form from the patient (or parent, guardian or next of kin). If such consent is made subject to any conditions, Elsevier must be made aware of all such conditions. Written consents must be provided to the journal on request.

Although complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, all efforts towards this goal must be taken. Even where consent has been given, identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning, and editors should so note.


Written consent from the author and publisher of any submitted material previously published must accompany the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest, then please state this: Conflicts of interest: None. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Declaration of generative AI in scientific writing

The below guidance only refers to the writing process, and not to the use of AI tools to analyse and draw insights from data as part of the research process.

Where authors use generative artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process, authors should only use these technologies to improve readability and language. Applying the technology should be done with human oversight and control, and authors should carefully review and edit the result, as AI can generate authoritative-sounding output that can be incorrect, incomplete or biased. AI and AI-assisted technologies should not be listed as an author or co-author, or be cited as an author. Authorship implies responsibilities and tasks that can only be attributed to and performed by humans, as outlined in Elsevier’s AI policy for authors.

Authors should disclose in their manuscript the use of AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by following the instructions below. A statement will appear in the published work. Please note that authors are ultimately responsible and accountable for the contents of the work.

Disclosure instructions
Authors must disclose the use of generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by adding a statement at the end of their manuscript in the core manuscript file, before the References list. The statement should be placed in a new section entitled ‘Declaration of Generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process’.

Statement: During the preparation of this work the author(s) used [NAME TOOL / SERVICE] in order to [REASON]. After using this tool/service, the author(s) reviewed and edited the content as needed and take(s) full responsibility for the content of the publication.

This declaration does not apply to the use of basic tools for checking grammar, spelling, references etc. If there is nothing to disclose, there is no need to add a statement.

Submission Declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint; see Submission also implies that the work described is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication is approved by all authors, as well as tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out; and that, if accepted, the work will not be published elsewhere, including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright holder.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.

Authorship Criteria and Changes to Authorship

The Canadian Journal of Diabetes has adopted the authorship recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) ( Authorship is thus based on the following 4 criteria:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Authors are asked to include in the manuscript a statement regarding the specific contributions of all authors to the preparation of the manuscript under the heading "Author Contributions". This statement should follow the acknowledgement section. Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal editor. To request such a change, the editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.

Only in exceptional circumstances will the editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the editor will result in a corrigendum.

Registration of Clinical Trials

* All randomized controlled trials submitted to the Canadian Journal of Diabetes whose primary purpose is to affect clinical practice (phase 3 trials) must be registered in accordance with the principles outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). ICMJE-approved registries currently include the following:,,,,, and Please include the unique trial number and registry name on manuscript submission.

Article transfer service

This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if your article is not selected for publication in your first-choice journal, you may consider transferring your article to another suggested title. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a "Journal Publishing Agreement" (for more information on this and copyright, refer to An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a "Journal Publishing Agreement" form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles, including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult: If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult,

For open-access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an "Exclusive License Agreement" (for more information, see Permitted third-party reuse of open-access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author Rights

As an author, you (or your employer or institution) has certain rights to reuse your work. For more information, see

  • The Canadian Journal of Diabetes accepts original articles not previously published or currently submitted for publication in another journal.
  • All authors must sign and submit the copyright release form for the Canadian Journal of Diabetes.
  • Manuscripts are accepted for review on the understanding that they are for publication solely in the Canadian Journal of Diabetes.
  • Published manuscripts become the property of Diabetes Canada. Permission to reprint the published manuscript in another publication must be obtained. For information on how to seek permission, visit

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Funding Body Agreements and Policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies, which allow authors to comply with their funder's open-access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements, please visit

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Green Open Access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open-access options available. We recommend authors see our green open-access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.

Language (Usage and Editing Services)

Please write your text in proper English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g. Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent via e-mail.

To complete the submission you must include:
• cover letter - include the names and e-mail addresses of 4 potential reviewers for your manuscript
• title page
• original manuscript in Microsoft Word
• figures and tables if required
• letter(s) of permission to reproduce material previously published elsewhere
• signed release for publication of identifiable subjects in photos and/or people acknowledged by name in the manuscript
copyright release form, signed by all authors
• for each author a completed ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

Submit your article

Please submit your article via

Potential Reviewers

Authors must suggest 4 potential reviewers for their manuscript and, to avoid delay in processing the submission, please ensure that email addresses given for reviewers are correct. These reviewers should be experts in their field who will be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Any suggested peer reviewers should not have published with any of the authors of the manuscript within the past 2 years, should not be current collaborators and should not be members of the same clinical unit, academic department or research group. The Canadian Journal of Diabetes editorial board reserves the right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used. Note: Submissions will not be considered for review unless the names of the 4 reviewers are included in the submission.

Patient Consent Form

Studies on patients or volunteers require informed consent, which should be documented within the manuscript. In addition, patient consent form(s) need to be completed and uploaded with the original manuscript. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients.

Author Disclosures

A statement regarding authors' conflicts of interest must be included in the manuscript. This should be under the heading Author Disclosures. This statement should follow the Author Contribution Statement.

All authors listed in the manuscript are required to submit a completed ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. All authors must disclose possible conflicts of interest at the time of submission. This information will remain confidential while the paper is under review and will not influence editorial decision. The information will be published with the article.

General Points

Manuscripts must be written in English. All materials (including tables) must be typed and double-spaced in Times New Roman 11 pt font. Use 1.0" margins on all sides, and number all pages in the bottom right corner. Separate each paragraph with a blank line. The term "diabetic" should not be used as a noun. Use lowercase for "diabetes", "type 1" and "type 2". Use numerals in the text rather than writing out numbers. Report all measurements in SI units. Report blood glucose in mmol/L. The abbreviation for hemoglobin A1C/glycated hemoglobin is A1C and values should be reported in derived NGSP units (% to one decimal point).

References must be accessible to the readership and should ideally be in English or French. References in other languages may only be used on an exceptional basis.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision: Un-numbered Sections

Divide your article into clearly defined sections (for example, Original Research articles are divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Figures), with each heading written in bold font, and appearing on its own separate line. Each subsection should be given a brief heading, written in italics, and appearing on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible. When cross-referencing text, refer to the subsection heading as opposed to simply "the text".

Original Research Article Sections

Introduction: Provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results and state the objectives of the work.

Methods: Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference; only relevant modifications should be described.

Results: Provide a clear and concise description of the results.

Discussion: This should explore the significance of the results of the work, but not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions: The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Acknowledgements: People who contributed substantially to the work but do not meet the authorship criteria should be recognized in the acknowledgements as well as funding support for the work. The Author Contribution Statement and Author Disclosures should also be included in this section.

Appendices: If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Use the same format for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.


Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Essential Title Page Information

Regardless of the article type, all manuscripts must have a title page with the following information:

  • Title: Should be concise, informative, and clearly indicate the population studied. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. For example: "The incidence of color blindness in adults with type 1 diabetes."
  • Author Names and Affiliations: Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
  • Corresponding Author: Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, as well as post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author. Present/Permanent Address: If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
  • Key Messages: Provide 2-3 statements to describe what is currently known and what new information this manuscript provides. Each statement should not exceed 140 characters.
  • Keywords: Provide a maximum of 6 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of").
  • Word Counts: Include word counts for the abstract and body of the manuscript (excludes abstract, tables, figures, and references). Also include the number of tables and figures.
  • Author Disclosures: State any conflicts of interest.


Please spell out all abbreviations at first mention within the article, using the abbreviation thereafter.

Math Formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text, not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g. X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text) should be numbered consecutively.

Electronic Artwork

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
  • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman or Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
  • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
  • Submit each illustration as a separate file.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on the Elsevier website.

You are urged to visit the Elsevier website. Only excerpts from the detailed information found on the website have been given here.


If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel), then please supply "as is" in the native document format.

When your electronic artwork is finalized, if an application other than Microsoft Office is used, please "Save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones and line/halftone combinations given below): EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.

TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones); keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings; keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/halftone (color or grayscale); keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:
  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g. GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color Artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF [or JPEG], EPS [or PDF] or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures, then Elsevier will ensure (at no additional charge) that these figures will appear in color online (e.g. ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only.

Figure Captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum. Explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables should be placed on separate page(s) at the end of the manuscript. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.


Reference Links

Increased discoverability of research and high-quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. Please be careful when copying links as they may contain errors.

Web References

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was accessed. Any further information (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given if known. Web references can either be listed separately (e.g. after the reference list) under a different heading, or included in the reference list.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

References in Special Issue

Please ensure that the words this issue are added to references and citations that refer to articles that appear in the same issue.

Reference Style

Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.

List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.


Reference to a journal publication:

[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.

Reference to a book:

[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.

Note shortened form for last page number. e.g. 51-9, and that for more than 6 authors, the first 6 should be listed followed by "et al."

For further details, you are referred to "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals" (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927-34).

Reference to a website:

[4] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK,; 2003 [accessed 13.03.03].

Journal abbreviations source

Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary Material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the Track Changes option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions, please visit the Elsevier artwork instruction pages:

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

Ensure that the following items are present:

1. One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

2. All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
•All tables (including title, description, footnotes)

3. Further considerations
•Manuscript has been "spell checked" and "grammar checked"
•References are in the correct format for this journal
•All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
•Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)

4. Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black and white
•Indicate clearly whether or not color or black and white in print is required.

For any further information, please visit the Elsevier customer Support Centre.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs, which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.

If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Social Medicine

The Canadian Journal of Diabetes regularly posts content on its Twitter platform (@CanJDiabetes) and invites authors of accepted manuscripts to provide content for future tweets. Here are some guidelines to help you in composing a tweet, which you can include in your author proof.
  • Compose a 280-character Twitter post describing a key finding of your article in a way that will capture the reader's interest. Consider what is the main message that you want the reader to take away from your work. Do not use the article title as the entire Twitter post.
  • Consider including a relevant and engaging royalty-free figure or table, GIF or video to represent your article, as this can make posts more appealing and encourage people to read and click.
  • If you, your co-authors or institution are active on Twitter, please provide your handles so we may tag you in the posts.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.